Effect of EDTA on Biochemical Markers of Artherosclerosis in Palm Kernel Oil Diet-Induced Hyperlipidaemic Albino Rats
Keywords:Hypercholesterolemia, Atherosclerosis, EDTA chelation, Rats
Ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a synthetic amino acid used orally and intravenously to cleanse, detoxify, and remove heavy metals from the body. Atherosclerosis is a complex disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids within the arterial walls that goes on to form plaques causing narrowing, hardening and/or complete blockage of the arteries. This study therefore seeks to determine the protective effect of EDTA on atherosclerosis in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats using markers of lipid profile, inflammation, total antioxidant status (TAS) and histopathological changes. 50 albino rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10). Group I was fed with rat chow and water only. Groups II to V were induced with hyperlipidaemia by diet for six weeks. Thereafter, the level of hyperlipidaemia was confirmed in blood samples compared with group I. Group II was terminated to check for plaque formation by histology, while group III, IV and V were treated with 0.5g/kg, 1.0g/kg, and 1.5g/kg dosage of EDTA salt respectively and monitored for changes. The result showed a significant increase in total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, hsCRP, and calcium level (p< 0.05); and significant decrease in HDL-C level and TAS of the groups II to V (p< 0.05). Group III to V showed a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, hsCRP, and calcium level (p<0.05) and a significant increase in the HDL-C and TAS (p< 0.05) when compared with their pre-treatment values. A dose dependent change from baseline was observed for all parameters except for Total Cholesterol which was inverse and LDL-C where maximum change was obtained at a concentration of 1.5g/kg EDTA treatment. This present study supports the hypothesis that EDTA chelation significantly attenuates markers of atherosclerosis in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.